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From ancient times up until the second half of 18th century, there were only seven basic metals established as such.
Those metals were: lead, tin, iron, copper, gold, silver and mercury. The eighth metal, platinum, was discovered in 1783, and its discovery messed things up with regards to the accepted order of metals.
The relation between the seven metals on one side and the planets on the other clearly and logically followed from the properties of the metals.
There was hardly any ancient culture that didn't relate Gold with the Sun or Silver with the Moon. Iron, it seems, has always been connected with Mars and Copper with Venus. Mercury, the only liquid metal, was obviously named after the planet Mercury, which it was thought to be intimately connected with. Tin is likewise a metal of Jupiter, whereas Lead is related to Saturn.
There are some striking coincidences in nowadays science that reaffirm this connection. For example, if we measure the speed with which the seven planets revolve around Earth (from the geocentric perspective), we will see that the Moon is the fastest, while Saturn is the slowest. In between, there follow Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars and Jupiter.
If we now measure the ability of the corresponding metals to conduct electric current or heat, the order will be the following: Silver, Mercury, Copper, Gold, Iron, Tin and Lead. This means that Silver is the best conductor, while Lead the worst. So, the faster the planet moves on the firmament with respect to Earth, the higher the ability of the corresponding metal to conduct electricity. Similar relations can be established considering a lot of additional chemical or physical properties of the metals.
From the book "The Magical World of Crystals" by Olga Rezo.